One of the 2008 male rhinos that was translocated from Pabitora National Park to Manas National Park had to be recaptured on April 24 to replace it’s defective radio collar. Here are a few pictures:
I was fortunate to observe the academic portion of the IUCN’s Asian Rhino Specialist Group meeting at the invitation of Dr. Susie Ellis of the IRF. The meeting was held in Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India in February, 2010. I spent many hours in the park observing the abundant wildlife, to include literally hundreds of the 2048 Greater One Horned Rhinos who live in the 430 sq. km. park. The riverine plains of Kaziranga are framed by 14-foot-tall elephant grass, creating a rich habitat for many endangered animals, to include rhinos, Asian elephants, Asiatic water buffalo, swamp deer, and the elusive Bengal Tiger. Many species of birds are perched or flying overhead, to include the endangered Greater Indian Hornbill.
The park’s rhino capacity is at its limit, and there are plans underway to translocate rhinos from the park to other managed parks in Assam. These translocations will hopefully allow the goals of Indian Rhino Vision 2020 to become reality: to have 3000 rhinos in at least seven managed habitats within India by the year 2020.
This image was captured by a Canon EOS 50D and a Canon telephoto lens at a 300 mm focal length, and shutter priority of 1/320, with f 8.0 and ISO 800.
Seattle, Washington, USA
In April 2008, two male greater one-horned rhinos were successfully translocated from Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary to Manas National Park in Assam — the first time that wild rhinos have been translocated in India!
A UNESCO-designated World Heritage site, Manas National Park is one of the nine biodiversity hotspots in India, and was home to several endangered species, including rhinos, before local political unrest in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to their eradication. Work is underway to restore Manas’ former wildlife populations, with these translocations among the early steps.
To make sure that adequate security was in place before the move, IRF and partners built community support, provided vehicles, wireless sets and other equipment to guards, and helped build watch towers, bridges, and roads. Guards are challenged by the curiosity of the two translocated males, who frequently venture into the park’s fringe areas. One of the two rhinos wandered out of the park in late 2008, and traveled nearly 80 kilometers during the monsoon season before the veterinary team could safely immobilize him and return him to the park. The two-week effort to bring the wandering rhino back to Manas cost nearly $7,000!
We are now building an 8 kilometer long fence along the southern border of the park to prevent the translocated rhinos from moving into unprotected areas where they could be injured or killed.
As with all activities in Manas, local communities are important partners in this effort. Prior to construction, we conducted a number of consultations with local villages to make sure they supported the fence construction, and young people from the area were hired to build the fence.
Three kilometers of fencing has already been erected and is currently being tested. A portion of this fence was damaged by a lone elephant, but was quickly repaired. The remaining 5 kilometers of fencing will be completed by mid-October, in time for the planned translocations of another 18 rhinos to Manas in November/December 2009.
We translocated 22 in the end from Bubiana. Everyone was a relief to get out but some deserve special mention:
Rosemary is the 7 year old female calf of Myrtle who was poached in November 2008 along with her young calf at the time, Mint. Myrtle’s sub-adult Basil was poached in December 2008 leaving Rosemary as her only known offspring surviving in Bubiana.
With Rosemary was Figtree – Marula’s calf of 2005. Marula and Myrtle were best friends and always found close to each other or calf sitting the others sub-adult so it is no surprise these two were together. Marula and her current calf Cassia were also translocated.
Sinikwe’s mother Ulemule and her sub-adult calf Serina (Sinikwe’s sister) were found on a property to the west of where she normally lives. With Ulemule, Sinikwe, Jiros and Serina moved the whole Ulemule family is now relocated to Bubye.
We also got both our local big heavies – Dozer and Ganya. Dozer had a number of new scars indicating he had been scrapping recently with Ganya.
Sadly the numbers on Rocky Glen and Boulder Creek (where monitoring is performed by the property owners) were much lower than hoped. Management there had said they had about 15 rhinos (out of 45 18 months ago) but we only found five. This is a disturbing example of what can happen when monitoring is not adequate. We found five carcasses while searching for rhinos to translocate.
By: Sujoy Banerjee
Director, Species Conservation
View a complete photo gallery here.
It was a long wait for this day. Over the past 1.5 years, Manas National Park, the eventual home of the translocated rhinos, went through a major reconstruction process and the security was scaled up through construction of protection camps and posting of extra staff and volunteers. The habitat was monitored and found suitable for the rhinos. There was eagerness on part of the Forest Department authorities to move the rhinos, and there was equal eagerness on part of Manas National Park authorities to receive them. But I was keeping my fingers crossed. The rhino translocations had to be called off a month ago at the very last moment due to non-availability of valid drugs on time. Not taking any chances this time, WWF sponsored a veterinarian to visit Singapore to procure valid drugs. The veterinarian came back with the drugs on Monday, 7 April 2008 and the date of translocation was scheduled four days later. But anything could have gone wrong; bad weather, possibilities of ethnic clashes, curfew, protests……..
Everything seemed perfect on D-day. The weather gods smiled upon us and the day was clear. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, the area from which the rhinos were to be moved, was agog with activity beginning very early in the morning. Tight security was positioned at the entrance points of this sanctuary and only authorized persons associated with the translocation were allowed entry into the area. Cranes, earth moving machinery, ambulance and loads of trucks were in place.
The operation started off at 5:30 in the morning and a group of veterinarians went off on elephant back for tranquilizing the rhinos. Ramesh Bhatta, Project Officer of WWF-India, who had identified the four rhinos (two males and two females) to be translocated, was also with the tranquilizing team.
Everything went off as planned initially. Of the four rhinos identified, Bhatta showed three of them to the tranquilizing team one by one, and the elephants, splayed out in a single file, gradually started cordoning the rhinos. But all three rhinos managed to break the elephant cordon.
It was 9:00 am and the tranquilizing team had not been successful at tranquilizing even a single rhino. The wireless was crackling with frantic conversations. The sun was now up and the temperature was gradually rising. The rhinos has sensed that the people on elephant back were not usual visitors and would avoid being approached at close distance, and it appeared that team may not be successful in tranquilize even a single rhino.
The tranquilizing team changed tactics. They now started stalking the rhino on foot, using the elephants as cover. In the next half hour that ensued, the first rhino, a male, was tranquilized. After fifteen minutes of tracking, the rhino grew sluggish and his hind legs started sinking. A vet then approached this animal and gave him a second shot of tranquilizer. But as soon as the dart hit him, the animal was up on his feet and running again!
The rhino lost consciousness in the next 10 minutes and the tranquilizing team approached him cautiously. A person prodded him with a stick, and when he was found totally unconscious, others, waiting in the wings, swooped in.
The rhino’s eyes were covered with a cloth and buckets of water were poured over him to keep his body temperature down. While the vet team busied themselves taking measurements and samples; blood, nose smears, temperature, pulse, length, height etc., the radio-collaring team busied itself in putting the radio-collar in place. The darts were taken out and the wound sprayed with antiseptics. The rhino was also administered antibiotics and sedatives for the journey ahead.
The excavator began digging a cavity a foot away from the felled rhino. Once this cavity of depth equal to the height of the stretcher sledge was excavated, laborers with shovels and diggers moved the loose earth and gave proper shape to the pit. The stretcher sledge was placed into this cavity. Everyone lent a hand in flipping over the rhino, weighing around fifteen hundred kilos, on to the stretcher sledge. The sledge was then pulled by the excavator and dragged about five hundred meters to the site where the wooden crate was parked.
Time was running out, since the rhino was to be revived and the stretcher sledge carrying the unconscious rhino was hurriedly taken inside the crate. The crate, which is a wooden cage, has two sliding doors on both sides, which can be lifted vertically to open the cage. The cage was closed from one side and the door towards the head of the rhino was lowered halfway. A vet entered the crate and administered a drug to bring the rhino back from unconsciousness. Within 10 seconds, the rhino was stirring and stood up on his feet, albeit a trifle groggy and dazed. But no sooner had he gained foothold, he began heavily pounding the walls of the crate with the horn.
The next operation involved pulling out the stretcher sledge from the cage to provide the rhino with a better foothold during transportation. Inch by inch, the stretcher sledge was pulled out of the cage ensuring that the rhino was not injured in the process. Once the sledge was out, the sliding doors of the cage was sealed using cross-iron strips which were bolted on the door. The door was also secured to the body of the crate with ropes.
The crane was moved in to lift the crate and put it into the back of the truck. In the first attempt, the crate was lifted the crate a feet or two in the air only to find that it was tilting to one side The two securing steel ropes were readjusted and the crate was lifted about eight feet from the ground. Then the rhino moved. The crate tilted heavily on one side at a 45-degree angle as the entire mass of rhino came to that side side, and for a moment it appeared that the crate would come crashing down with the rhino inside it. But the crate, made out of strong Sal wood stood its ground. Finally, the crate was maneuvered to the ground before anything untoward could take place.
Now the excavator was summoned, who stood guard behind the crate. As it was lifted, the arm of the excavator kept the crate upright and the crate was loaded onto the truck without any further event.
It almost noon by the time the decision was taken to look for a second rhino. Having learnt a lesson from the earlier event, things went quite smoothly this time and the second rhino, again a male, was put into the crate and secured in the back of the truck.
The team waited until sundown to start the transportation of the rhinos. At about 6 pm, the convoy of vehicles with the trucks carrying the rhinos in the center started moving. As soon as the convoy reached the exit gate of the sanctuary, it was greeted by a huge number of local people, who had gathered to catch a glimpse of “their” rhinos. People cheered as the procession passed by.
The veterinary team kept monitoring the rhinos every half and hour and water was poured over them periodically to keep them cool. The vehicles in the convoy kept in touch with each other through walkie-talkies. The police provided an escort vehicle with flashing lights to lead the convoy, and the traffic of cities and towns that were stopped throughout the journey by the police to make way for the convoy to pass by. The escort vehicle in front, called the “pilot” kept changing from time to time as soon as the border of a city or town was reached; the pilot leading the convoy would pull by and another pilot, already waiting, would take his place upfront without stopping the convoy, as if it were a part of some kind of relay race.
The distance of 240 kms from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to Manas National Park was covered in 12 hours due to slow movement of vehicles in the interest of comfort and safety of the rhinos. It was daylight by the time we were reaching Manas, and only one obstacle needed to be negotiated……. a river!
There was only about 2 feet of water in the river and the leading vehicles cleared the river with ease. People watched with bated breath as the first truck carrying the rhino crate entered the water. If the truck got stuck in the river, it would be a gargantuan task to pull it out. But luck was on our side as the truck crawled out the water uneventfully, the second truck following closely behind the first.
The convoy entered the Manas National Park and continued some 10 kilometers inside to the release area. We were greeted by a large group of people who had been waiting for hours to catch a glimpse of the rhinos. Two ramps had been created by excavating the earth, and both the trucks backed down into these depression. The iron board securing the back of the truck was opened, which formed a platform for the rhinos to walk over from the truck to terra firma. The space between the crate and end of the iron board was covered with mud and grasses and rhino dung was scattered over it to provide a natural base for the rhino to come out.
Some team members climbed on the top of the crate, while the onlookers clambered on to a water tank truck parked in the vicinity. Some people placed themselves on the two Machaan (elevated wooden platform), strategically built especially for this event to provide the best glimpse of the rhino release. Dozens of cameras were lined up to record the history that was going to be created. And the door of the cage was lifted up. All eyes were focused on the rear of the truck from where the rhino was to emerge. The fingers on the cameras were ready and taut to click the best shots possible. But the rhino did not emerge.
In the next half-hour that followed, attempts were repeatedly made to get the rhino up on his feet, but the rhino had planted itself firmly to the floor of his crate and would not budge. Water was poured over him repeatedly and he was prodded, but he held his ground. As the minutes passed by, people were getting more apprehensive about whether the animal was injured.
It was then decided to release the second rhino. Some others got on to the top of the crate while I helped to unscrew the bolts for opening the door. A plank, which was fixed at the bottom of the door needed to be taken out. So I requested the people operating the door to lift it six inches to lift the door. As the door was lifted a few inches, I was crouched on the ground attempting to pull out the plank. Then there was a bang and the rhino managed to lift the door with his horn, and I was staring at the face of a snorting rhino two feet away! I jumped and moved aside. But the rhino could not balance the door on his nose for long and it came down crashing the very next moment.
While all this was happening, another drama began to unfold. The people on top of the first crate shouted that the rhino, which had not budged an inch for the past 45 minutes decided to move. Someone shouted to me to run for cover (I was the only person on the ground) and I scampered into the cabin of the truck carrying the second rhino. The rhino emerged from the back of the truck and turned right, straight towards the truck with a loadful of people parked some 20 meters away! It banged on the truck with its horn five or six times, much to the chagrin of a group of onlookers on board the truck. Then it turned around and ran into the grassland and disappeared as the crowd broke into loud applause.
In the meanwhile, I had managed to plant myself on one of the Machaan overlooking the back of the second truck to get some pictures of the rhino release. No sooner was the door of the crate of the second rhino was opened, the head of the rhino poked out of the rear of the truck, and it surveyed the scene around it. Then it came out full charge, turned a full circle, and banged the side of the truck that had been carrying it for the past 14 hours. Then it galloped and vanished into the thickets, again evoking loud applause from the crowd.
Happy and content, but very weary, the team returned to base. Most of us had a very scanty sleep over the past few 2 nights, while some had not slept properly for more. Everyone was covered with a mix of sweat and dirt from head to toe.
As we drove back, the significance of this exercise dawned on me. It was not merely a process of shifting some rhinos into a place where rhinos once existed, we were bringing back the lost glory of this World Heritage site, of which the local people were once proud. Above all, it would secure a long-term future for the rhinos in this part of India, as there will be smaller populations of rhinos building up all over Assam. There would be opportunities of tourism, reduction of human-rhino conflicts in areas from which the rhinos would be moved, and would result in intermixing of genetic material of rhinos brought into Manas from different places.
While I write this article, I relive the sequence of events, as if I am watching a replay. And what impresses me most in the whole event is the role of the people of Assam. What started off as an initiative of the Government of Assam in partnership with Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), International Rhino Foundation (IRF) and US Fish and Wildlife Service actually really turned out to be a movement of the people of Assam. Apart from local NGOs, individuals, doctors, veterinarians, academicians and a host of other people had participated in the event whole heartedly, and the contribution of these people to the success of the first translocation is immense. It was really a role model to for team work.
I guess the efforts of translocation were successful in more ways than one!!
View a complete photo gallery here.